Kaczynski - Removal from Society

Zodiackiller.com Message Board: Other Suspects: Kaczynski - Removal from Society

By Linda (Linda) (208-59-124-159.s159.tnt1.frdr.md.dialup.rcn.com - on Sunday, May 19, 2002 - 06:23 am:

Hi, Sylvie! I've moved my response to you from the "Who Else Could it Be" thread to this new one because it deals mainly with Ted K (and the other thread was getting lengthy)….

You said, "My problem with TK is that he simply seems too d*mn smart to be Z." I think you're totally right and that TK was smart. If he was indeed the Zodiac, I believe he was smart enough to realize that what he was doing was not only wrong but irrational and acts of someone who was mentally ill. (Ted never has nor wants to be considered sick or mentally ill). In order to help gain control, he decided to remove himself from society. Zodiac's correspondence with Melvin Belli clearly appears to be a cry for help. If TK was Zodiac, moving himself away from society at that time would have been an extremely smart move, especially since it helped prevent the possibility of another close-call of being identified/captured (again, if TK was Z). By taking himself away from the rest of the world and the annoyances that disturbed him, he placed himself in almost total seclusion, hoping to find peace and solitude within himself. For awhile, his thoughts were redirected and he worked towards finding a place to live, building his new home, living off the land, reading and writing. But during this time, he also tries to understand how and why he has come to this point in his life. Though away from the mainstream world as he could be, there were still annoyances. He could not stand the noise of airplanes or motorcycles disturbing his life with nature, he could not stand the thought of development around him, and he could not forget how he came to be the person he'd become. He spends much time analyzing himself and society and, eventually, concludes that he was severely wronged by his family in the way he was brought up and that technology was ruining the world. He now directs the blame towards society itself and, shortly thereafter (his anger growing more with each day of his self-seclusion), decides to take revenge on that which he feels is the root cause. He has metamorphosized into whom we now know as the Unabomber.

In regards to Ted's youth, he assures there was no physical abuse; however, The Sally Johnson Psychological Report, prepared from interviews with Ted Kaczynski and review of his own writings, provides that Ted clearly felt that the "…major cause of frustration and discomfort in life was psychological abuse by his parents…" Upon reading many years of correspondence with his family, Ms. Johnson concludes that they show a "…wide range of affect and are often degrading, controlling…[Ted] persistently seeks apologies from his parents for what they have done to him, but no type of apology they offer satisfies him or is viewed as sincere or acceptable."

TK is a very interesting and compelling suspect in the Z crimes. The more you read and understand of him, his history, his views and his writings, the clearer it becomes that at the time of the Z crimes, TK had the built-up anger, desire and ability to take revenge and/or lash out in some manner or form. But was it as "Z?" I wonder if we'll ever find out?

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (224.philadelphia08rh.16.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Sunday, May 19, 2002 - 09:07 am:

Excellent analysis, Linda. And for those who discount Ted because his anti-technology philosophy wasn't in keeping with the nature of the Zodiac crimes, remember that there was no anti-technology formulation in Kaczynski's worldview until 1971. Before then his rage was motivated by sexual frustration and the humiliation wrought by a warped sexual identity--qualities that jibe perfectly with what we can deduce about Zodiac.

By Ryan Olesin (Ryan) (d150-160-190.home.cgocable.net - on Sunday, May 19, 2002 - 07:03 pm:

Linda wrote:
"Zodiac's correspondence with Melvin Belli clearly appears to be a cry for help"

I disagree. That could be what he was doing, or maybe what he wanted us to think. Maybe he was teasing everyone by hinting about getting caught/help. Perhaps he was planting the seeds for his "retirement" so people would think his disappearance was because he committed suicide.


By Linda (Linda) (208-59-124-130.s130.tnt1.frdr.md.dialup.rcn.com - on Monday, May 20, 2002 - 02:42 am:

Doug and Ryan... Thanks for the comments!

I think the Belli letter is one of the most interesting of Z's correspondences... and, Ryan, I don't disagree with you that he could have been teasing, using this type approach as another potential threat; however, I don't see any other indication of that in this particular and confirmed (by piece of Stine's shirt) Zodiac writing. The tone of the letter does not appear to be the usual sarcastic tone of Zodiac... If we take his letter on its face value, Z appears to be struggling within himself to get help. I think if he had wanted to incite additional havoc in the community, he would have done so directly with the media or police. As it was, the chosen recipient of this letter was the most famous defense attorney, Melvin Belli. Why would Z write privately to him? In quoting from Graysmith, "To reporters, Belli said, 'I believe he wants to stop killing, I have carefully studied his letter…and feel it is written at a time when he calmly and rationally was considering the future. He knows eventually he will be apprehended and that unless he gets proper legal representation, he will most probably be sentenced to die in the gas chamber. That is why he is crying out for help…Why he has come to me? He wants to be saved from the gas chamber.'" In connection with TK (if he was the Zodiac), this coincides nicely with the start of his departure from society.

In response to Z's letter, Belli tried to contact him through the media (Chronicle), promising to do everything he could to help him. The only response indicated was that a man claiming to be Zodiac reached the Belli housekeeper (by phone) and had gotten along so well with her that, "…Belli expected, 'When I get home, he'll be sitting in the front room with the housekeeper'…" Evidentally, it was not believed that the phone call was authentic and Graysmith ends by saying, "It was months before the Cipher Slayer wrote to Belli again."

I find this last sentence puzzling. Is there another letter Z wrote to Belli of which we are not aware? Did Z make additional contact with Belli? Did Belli know who Z was after all?

Things I find interesting in regards to Zodiac's original letter to Belli are:

(1) The greeting of the letter as "Dear Melvin," almost as if Z knew him;
(2) Z's extended wish for Melvin to have a "happy Christmass" - again, a personal extension of the upcoming holiday;
(3) The letter was addressed to Belli at his home address, not his office
(4)) Z wanted Belli to know that he was who he said he was, thus providing proof through a piece of Stine's shirt

NOW I'M JUST PONDERING HERE….We know that Z "knew of" Belli because he was a very prominent and an extremely well-known attorney, BUT, what if Z really "knew" Belli (at least had met him or had some direct contact with him at some point in time). And, I wonder if Belli revealed all information he received from Zodiac? Could Zodiac have given him any additional clues or actually revealed his identity? Belli said to him when he attempted through the media to contact him, "If you want me to meet with you alone, I will come alone. ..I will follow your instructions to the letter." Could Z have made additional contact with Belli, as appears to be indicated by Graysmith (or was this a Graysmith typo)? Was Z reaching out to Belli to represent him as a client? Could Belli have known Z's true identity and tried to keep it confidential, as promised? If so, would Belli have kept his trust to Z and never revealed more?

Just some things I found interesting relating to the Belli letter…

By Scott Bullock (Scott_Bullock) (spider-ntc-td072.proxy.aol.com - on Monday, May 20, 2002 - 03:24 am:

"Could Belli have known Z's true identity and tried to keep it confidential, as promised? If so, would Belli have kept his trust to Z and never revealed more?"

Very interesting. I was watching a show tonight on the Discovery Channel about serial killer John Paul Knolles. Knolles had sent numerous tapes that he described as his personal "saga" or something to an attorney in Miami. Despite the fact that Knolles was the center of an intensive manhunt, the attorney refused to turn the tapes over to investigators because it would violate "attorney/client privileges." Of course, much later, when all was said and done, the tapes were finally handed over. Guess what. They led investigators to 18 corpses spread over three different states.

Excellent posts, Linda!


By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) ( on Monday, May 20, 2002 - 05:22 am:

Linda, another interesting point in the Unabomb case that's reminiscent of the Belli Letter is Ted's 1995 letter to social scientist Tom Tyler. Kaczynski had read comments by Tyler that had run in the SF Chronicle and felt compelled to respond by sending him a letter and a copy of the Manifesto. The tone of the letter was such that Kaczynski appeared to be begging for official affirmation of his theories.

By Sylvie (Sylvie14) (spider-ntc-tc054.proxy.aol.com - on Monday, May 20, 2002 - 02:24 pm:

I've always felt that the Belli letter was more of a prep for a good defense, as z had really cut it a bit too close. Doesn't detract at all from TK being Z though, I would think TK would have by that point been much too arrogant to ever plea for help as such.
One point in favour of Ted - in the trio of Ted, Bruce or Leigh he is the only suspect who would not have needed to have worn a wig on the night of the Stine murder.
Furthermore, I really do think the FBI placement of Ted in the late 60's is flimsy at best.
From what I have been reading of Ted though the guy could easily have been on track to win the Nobel.
I still cannot picture Z as a Nobel Prize winner.

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (234.philadelphia03rh.16.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Monday, May 20, 2002 - 03:40 pm:

Sylvie, there's no doubt he was bright. His faculty advisor at Michigan told me that he wasn't one of the best students in the class, although his forte was original research. He never could get into the mainstream of things, preferring to immerse himself in the backwaters of mathematics, which, according to some, would have gotten him into serious trouble tenure-wise in time.

However, I take the contrary approach to your line of thought. It seems to me more logical that someone with the potential to win a Nobel who, because of his social pathologies, failed to realize that potential, would be more likely to lash out at the society for whom he blamed his failures. In other words, in order to be a real loser you've got to have something very cogent and tangible to lose. Kaczynski did. Not only did he squander his dreams; he disappointed his parents as well. And the course of his dropping out occurred between summer of 1968, when he first mentioned it to an associate, and the summer of 1969, four days before the BRS event.

By Zander Kite (Zk) (a010-0047.stbg.splitrock.net - on Wednesday, June 05, 2002 - 02:44 pm:

The reasons for Zodiac being "noise-disturbed" are this: He writes about "being quiet" as a positive: "I drove away quite slowly so as not to draw attention to my car": "The police could have caught me but they made too much noise. They should have sat there quietly waiting for me to come out of cover": What I consider a lock on this diagnosis is the July 4/5 murders. After a few days of fireworks AKA "noisemakers", The Zodiac was must have been totally set off. But it's not just the noise solely, but what it represents too: It snowballs down to the stiff pushing a lawnmower, or the high-schooler gunning his engine because he thinks he is cool and wants some attention. A person like this(Zodiac) would view himself as being srounded by a bunch of noise-making, servitude-loving, working stiff *$$H---s, making heading for the hills an eventual necessity or otherwise a strong possibility.

By Sylvie (Sylvie14) (spider-th021.proxy.aol.com - on Wednesday, June 05, 2002 - 04:33 pm:

And when he does get to those hills, there are lovers, giggling, oohing, aahing.

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (199.philadelphia08rh.16.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Wednesday, June 05, 2002 - 07:44 pm:

And to add insult to injury there are three people heading for the moon, the culmination of years of work by renowned engineers.

By obiwan (Obiwan) (ciw2.ciw.edu - on Thursday, August 22, 2002 - 04:31 pm:

Strange question for Doug, or others: Suppose TK is Z, and suppose someone comes up with a single demonstrably correct solution to the 340 cipher, via a pretty complex mathemathematical algorithm.
Now if they then privately sent this solution to TK, based on your psychological profile of TK, do you think he would confess?
I'll let you answer before I give my opinion.

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (177.philadelphia01rh.15.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Thursday, August 22, 2002 - 07:11 pm:

Obiwan, I don't think he'd confess. He put his life on the line to disassociate himself with any intimation of "sickness" as a motivation for his crimes. The only thing that kept him from suicide over the years, in my opinion, was the elaborate fantasy, or, if you prefer, weltanschauung that maintained his ego and convinced him that the world was insane and he was the only normal person in it. To admit to the Zodiac crimes would be tantamount to a plunge into the abyss.

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (177.philadelphia01rh.15.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Thursday, August 22, 2002 - 07:12 pm:

Be that as it may, you might want to send it to him anyway. Or better still, to his brother.

By obiwan (Obiwan) (ciw2.ciw.edu - on Thursday, August 22, 2002 - 11:22 pm:

Well I don't have the solution...sorry. And I hope other people don't send their solutions to him unless they are mathematically verifiable.

I would tend to agree he would not confess, because he does not want to taint his supposed reputation an an environmental crusader with the Z crimes. However, on the other hand, I see him taking a lot of pride in the cipher going unsolved and if somebody just happened to solve it, he might grugingly have to admit that somebody out there was his intellectual equal.

What I was hypothetically thinking was: say your solution contains 10 words previously unseen in Z communiques, ie CAMBELL HALL, MICHIGAN, etc. You could write him an obtuse letter containing these refererences (but phrased as a normal letter) and say "am I on to something here?". I bet that, if he could do so without admitting Z guilt, he might say "yes" or "perhaps"....just a thought...irrelevant really.

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (168.philadelphia08rh.16.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Friday, August 23, 2002 - 03:52 am:

I'd be willing to give it a shot. It would be interesting to see his response!

By Lapumo (Lapumo) (p50-36.as1.clm.clonmel.eircom.net - on Friday, August 23, 2002 - 10:09 am:

Reminds me of a question Iv'e been meaning to ask you with a while.Would it be fair to say the Tk was linked to these crimes because of the obvious similarities? If so,How do you reconcile your point about Kazcynski wanting to distance himself from the Zodiac crimes,when he turns around and adopts similar tactics?
Especially when he does something like writing to the same newspapers.

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (219.philadelphia-18-19rs.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Friday, August 23, 2002 - 10:53 am:

Lapumo, I've been struggling to explain this for several years now, and it's been somewhat frustrating because people can't seem to perceive the difference between the physical nature of the crimes (i.e., the modus operandi) and the underlying psychological motivations for them. Kaczynski needed an ego-saving scapegoat in order to provide himself with a reason for his continued existence, but the fact is that he didn't come up with such a scapegoat (the technological society) until 1971, long after the Zodiac crimes had been committed. Regardless of when or where he killed, it's essential to understand that he was always driven by a combination of frustration and envy. There is no doubt that prior to 1971 his frustrations were almost completely sexual in nature. As Zodiac he would simply have been lashing out against the class of people who represented the fulfillment of desires which he was impotent to fulfill himself. If my scenario is correct, he committed the Zodiac crimes as purely an impulse thing, without a lot of thought going into exactly why he was doing it. This might have given him some momentary gratification, but it wasn't calculated to do anything for his ego. He would still have been obliged to admit to himself that he committed the murders because, in essence, he was nothing more than a green-eyed loser. A person of Kaczynski's intellect couldn't have seen it otherwise.

The formulation of the anti-technology creed, on the other hand, provided Kaczynski with the intellectual basis for convincing himself that he wasn't a loser; simply a victim of the technological society. If you're not convinced of this, remember, quite a few intelligent people have bought into his argumentation over the years, especially since his arrest, and he now is the central figure of a fan club whose membership all but worship him. Compared to that, the Zodiac crimes would be an embarrassment. Not only that, but the contemplation of those crimes would have the effect of tearing down the ego that Kaczynski has so carefully nurtured via his anti-technology creed.

By Lapumo (Lapumo) (p51-208.as1.clm.clonmel.eircom.net - on Friday, August 23, 2002 - 01:23 pm:

Is what your saying Doug,that these "underlying
psychological motivations" somehow prevented Kaczynski from fully distancing himself from what he did as Zodiac because of what he was later driven to do in the guise of the Unabomber?
Both killers and/or Kazcynski as both demonstrated a "savvy" with regard to avoiding detection.But to go back to the same paper,with Zodiac still very much alive in the mind of Californians...!
Perhaps,I am not "getting it",but I am trying to understand your points.

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (237.philadelphia01rh.15.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Friday, August 23, 2002 - 02:44 pm:

Lapumo, I think you're partially understanding, but not fully. Assuming he was Zodiac, Kaczynski's Unabomber crimes would have had little if anything to do with the Zodiac crimes. Where they relate to each other is in terms of what he gets psychologically and emotionally from them, i.e., the satisfaction of wreaking vengeance upon the people he envies--young couples in the younger days; successful engineers, scientists and businessmen in his later life. Then there's the common thread of using his murders to achieve national publicity. We might see a criminal of this sort (the "disaffected type") graduate from one sort of activity to another, but the motivational aspect of the crimes would tend to remain uniform from one crime to another.

By obiwan (Obiwan) (ciw2.ciw.edu - on Friday, August 23, 2002 - 09:17 pm:

Hi Lapumo: Good questions. I'm not sure Doug would agree, but as I see it "Zodiac" is a persona. "UNIBOMer" (or FC as he called himself) is a persona, ie a role, or a face presented to the public, which a certain person plays. These roles, respectively Mikado-like avenger against young couples, and anti-technology sabateur are indeed quite different.

But as you point out there are similarities in how these two roles are played out which would be difficult to aviod if they were being played by the same actor. You point out "similar tactics" ie seeking publicity via the same newspapers, taunting law enforcement. We could add to that striving to aviod capture, when possible, planting fake clues, making then retracting false threats, etc. These largely psychological factors would have been mostly under the surface, and not in the immediate conciousness of Z and "FC", unless they engaged in deep introspection. If not then they would have shown up, not directly in the Personae of Z or FC, but secondarily in the "style" or "tone" of their communiques.

Certainly Z envied couples' happiness, and so did TK (he said so to his brother & even admitted to applying to a dating service once). But, I think I disagree slightly with Doug that TK envied successful engineers. I really doubt he would have exchanged his life in the woods for theirs.

BUT, he did at one crucial point in his life renouce a GREAT job as a Berkeley professor (perhaps because he needed to "get out of town"), and there was then a psychological need to justify this renunciation, ie to brand all such tech. prof. types as instruments of the evil tech. machine which is ruining the world, (and the psycho-social control systems which caused him to be mal-adjusted toward women); a need which found its satisfaction in TK's anti-tech crimes.

By Zander Kite (Zk) (dialup- - on Saturday, August 24, 2002 - 08:06 am:

The transition from Z to FC, to me, is nearly flawless. Kaczynski is the rare type of person that can't stomach being around the noise and the everyday working stiff hustle bustle. Kaczynski was probably looking for an escape by seeking out isolated areas and that's what led to the original drive-by. The Stine murder was a Z-FC hybrid murder. No offense to Stine, but he was just the kind of city-rat that Kaczynski would like to see shot. In the Manifesto, TK wites how he hates cab drivers and their servitude-acceptance attitude. He even uses the phrase "Busy work" and writes how people are kept happy by being given pointless work. Just like The Zodiac wrote. That type of word association is a clear "give-away" that it is the same person writing. Kaczynski had to kill within his means so to speak. He had to retreat to a cabin in the woods, and so his killing options changed. He developed bomb skills that he never had as The Zodiac. That opened doors. He may have been more reluctant to sniper as a result of past experience(close calls). If you make the decision to get away from people, then the car is no longer there, and the murder scenarios must change. He matured, and developed more into targeting those pulling the strings instead of the puppets.

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (15.philadelphia01rh.16.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Saturday, August 24, 2002 - 08:57 am:

Good analysis, Zander. That's pretty much the way I see it myself. Obiwan, I believe Kaczynski probably wouldn't have traded his life in the woods for that of an engineer once he was firmly established in his persona as anti-technology crusader, but he still resented them as a class. I'm convinced that in his youth he felt he was cut out to be an engineer. Remember, he was highly celebrated for intelligence at his local high school; he was even written up in the Chicago area newspapers for being a prodigy. I'll wager he thought he was going to go right off to college and make a huge splash in the world--something that never came to pass. For some odd reason he quit the engineering program at Harvard and retreated into the world of math. His research work, though brilliant, wasn't really calculated to get him the kind of attention he doted on during his high school years. Notice, too, how he lumps all the people he wants to kill into the category of "bigshots." That's a really telling word, in my opinion. These are people whom he considers arrogant, even though he doesn't know them personally. He obviously hates them for what they are, and their one common denominator is success.

Of course, once he accepted his new, overriding worldview, he could use it as an excuse to stop striving to be "someone," apart from the savior of the world, which was an indispensible part of the persona. There were a couple of little hiccups on the way, however. Around 1978, when he was having that little dating fling with Ellen Tarmichael he spoke of giving up his wilderness life and striving for what he called "something worthwhile." Then, about a decade later, he made a stab at going back to college in Montana and majoring in journalism (very telling, that, eh?)

By Ed N (Ed_N) (acc2c874.ipt.aol.com - on Saturday, August 24, 2002 - 10:21 pm:

Maybe TK followed the Z case, and he used, either consciously or subconsciously, words and ideas that Z used previously. Maybe he thought Z was cool and tried to emulate him. That could explain a lot too.

By Howard Davis (Howard) (dsl-gte-10407-2.linkline.com - on Monday, September 02, 2002 - 09:12 pm:

I am in contact with TK.E mail me.Questions?They will be phrased carefully so as not to lose my channel of communication.
I have done this before and I do it in a very subtle manner so as not to arouse suspicion,but it gets an answer.
All suspects are created equal in an unsolved case such as this one!So if I can help you then ask!

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (2.philadelphia-18-19rs.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Tuesday, September 03, 2002 - 01:35 am:

Interesting, Howard. Kaczynski is one sharp blade, so you'll have to turn up the "subtle" a few notches if you expect to get anywhere!

By obiwan (Obiwan) (ciw2.ciw.edu - on Tuesday, September 03, 2002 - 09:05 pm:

Howard, you could ask him exactly what he meant when he said something to the effect "In 1966, I felt liberated to kill". You could ask him if this feeling of liberation applied only toward people who were harming the environment and/or conducting sinister social engineering, or if it applied to others as well. Umm, I guess that would not be very "subtle", as phrased. I'll leave the subtle part to you. Maybe quote that passage of his own writing back to him, and ask: "Is that the time you decided to seek revenge against the destroyers of nature?". But besure to add: "Be honest!"

(TK would have us believe that his only targets were such "harmers of nature". However Douglas presents evidence that he had no such inklings until 1971, after he got out of town and headed for the woods.)

Douglas can provide specifics but I believe the above quote came from the psych. report which certified that he was mentally qualified to exercise his right to self-representation (a right which was then denied him by the trial judge, incidentally, much to the outrage of one of the appelent judges.)

By Peter H (Peter_H) (pool-141-154-19-149.bos.east.verizon.net - on Wednesday, September 04, 2002 - 07:09 am:

TK doesn't have internet access?

By Douglas Oswell (Dowland) (206.philadelphia08rh.16.pa.dial-access.att.net - on Wednesday, September 04, 2002 - 08:46 am:

Obiwan, the relevant quotes are:

"... said to myself, "Why not really kill that psychiatrist ... and anyone else whom I hate." What is important is not the words that ran through my mind, but the way I felt about them. What was entirely new was the fact that I really felt I could kill someone. My very hopelessness had liberated me. Because I no longer cared about death, I no longer cared about consequences, and I suddenly felt that I really could break out of my rut in life and do things that were daring, 'irresponsible', or criminal."

"'... I will kill, but I will make at least some effort to avoid detection, so that I can kill again.' Then I thought, 'Well, as long as I am going to throw everything up anyway, instead of having to shoot it out with the cops or something, I will do what I've always wanted to do, namely, I will go up to Canada, take off into the woods with a rifle, and try to live off the country. If that doesn't work out, and if I can get back to civilization before I starve, then I will come back here and kill somebody I hate.' What was new here was the fact that I now felt I really had the courage to behave "irresponsibly."

What precipitated this rage had nothing to do with technological societies. He had just gone through a period of a month (August, 1966) during which, according to the account in the psych report, he had been experiencing a persistent state of sexual arousal, fantasizing himself as being a woman, and finding himself unable to obtain any sexual relief. Thinking he might be happier in the role of a woman, he arranged a meeting with a U of Michigan campus psychiatrist to discuss a sex change operation. (The psychiatrist referenced in the quote above.) As illustrated in the psych report:

"He describes that while waiting in the waiting room,
he became anxious and humiliated over the prospect of talking about this to the
doctor. When he was actually seen, he did not discuss these concerns, but rather
claimed he was feeling some depression and anxiety over the possibility that the
deferment status would be dropped for students and teachers, and that he would face
the possibility of being drafted into the military. He indicates that the psychiatrist
viewed his anxiety and depression as not atypical. Mr. Kaczynski describes leaving
the office and feeling rage, shame, and humiliation over this attempt to seek
evaluation. He references this as a significant turning point in his life."

I think we can see the extent of his humiliation and anger by the fact that he instantly wanted to lash out at the psychiatrist. Apart from that, I think it's patently obvious that the guy had some really big problems with sex and sexuality.